CloseWaters LLC              services

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Closewaters LLC offers industry exceptional experience creating and developing projects compliant with the Kyoto Protocol Clean Development Mechanism (CDM); projects that produce valuable Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) that can also enable new financing options.

Experienced in every aspect of CDM across a number of industrial, agricultural, and forestry sectors, Closewaters LLC and its technology partners provide complete, turn-key, integrated carbon emission reduction services.



project development

  • Create project concepts
    • Analyze corporate carbon footprints
      • Calculate baseline emissions
      • Estimate Potential carbon value
    • Benchmark energy management
      • Renewable energy options
      • Energy efficiency options
      • Fuel switch options
    • Apply viable technologies
    • Estimate GHG emission reduction
      • CO2
      • methane
      • nitrous oxide, etc.
    • Document project idea notes (PINs)
  • Validate project concepts
    • Execute due-diligence
    • Sustainability analysis
    • Social cost-benefit analysis
    • Assess compliance with additionality
    • Assess methodology or protocol compliance


  • Scenario analysis
  • Develop options
  • Decision-making
    • Manage uncertainty
    • Expected monetary value analysis
    • Risk Analysis
  • Task precedence and sequencing
    • Contingency development
    • Articulate carbon management plans
    • Articulate energy management plans


  • Economic modeling
    • Energy value estimation
    • Carbon value estimation
    • Product value estimation
    • Return on investment optimization
    • Cash-flow
  • Legal value creation
    • Power purchase agreements
    • International commercial agreements
    • Identify intellectual property assets
    • Emissions Reduction Purchase Agreements
  • Facilitate project financing


  • Facilitate realization
    • Select technologies
    • Protect intellectual property value
    • Engineering and permitting assistance
  • Register Protocol-Compliant Projects
    • Select or create optimum CDM methodologies
    • Elaborate Project Design Document (PDD)
    • Articulate compliant monitoring plans
    • Obtain Letter of Authorization (LoA)
    • Manage project validation
  • Value and revenue realization
    • Manage verification audits
    • Broker the purchase or sale of carbon offsets e.g. CERs
    • Renewable energy credits